Composition of logistics cost and reduction of pac

2022-06-23
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The composition of logistics cost and the reduction of packaging logistics cost modern logistics is known as the "third profit source" after labor and natural resources, and the key to ensure the realization of this profit source is to reduce the logistics cost of enterprises

composition of logistics costs

the United States divides logistics costs into inventory costs, transportation costs and logistics management costs

inventory expenses refer to the expenses spent on the preservation of goods. In addition to storage, damage, labor costs, insurance and taxes, they also include the interest of the funds occupied by inventory. Adding the interest of the capital occupied by inventory to the logistics cost is the biggest difference between modern logistics and traditional logistics cost calculation. It unifies the reduction of logistics cost and the acceleration of capital turnover

transportation cost includes road transportation, other transportation expenses and cargo owner's expenses. Road transportation includes intra city transportation and inter regional truck transportation; Other transportation modes include railway transportation, international and domestic transportation, oil and gas pipeline transportation, etc; The owner's expenses include the operation and handling expenses of the transportation department

in the United States, the logistics management cost is determined by experts according to the historical situation of the United States and multiplied by the sum of inventory cost and transportation cost

current situation of operation cost of logistics enterprises in China

due to the influence of many factors, the logistics cost in China is much higher than that in developed countries. According to relevant data, the operating costs of China's logistics enterprises are the highest among the countries counted. The logistics costs of Britain, the United States, Japan, Singapore and other countries account for 10.1%, 10.5%, 11.4% and 13.9% of GDP respectively; In China, the logistics cost accounts for 16.9% of GDP in the mainland, 13.7% in Hong Kong and 13.1% in Taiwan

1. The high logistics inventory and transportation costs are mainly caused by the backward infrastructure of China's logistics enterprises. On the macro level, the national finance has not invested enough in the construction of logistics infrastructure. The logistics infrastructure is much lower than the world average level. The contradiction between transportation has become increasingly prominent. The logistics industry has been lack of modern transportation and logistics distribution network technology system; Compared with developed countries, the no-load rate of freight is as high as 60%, and the storage volume is five times that of the United States; The current national value-added tax policy does not allow enterprises to deduct the input tax of fixed assets, which restricts the demand for fixed assets renewal of logistics enterprises; At the same time, the layout of logistics infrastructure is unreasonable, with 54% in the East, 30% in the middle and 16% in the west, which is also the reason for the high logistics transportation costs. At the micro level, the internal facilities of China's logistics industry are backward, most of which were built or configured in the 1960s and 1970s. Most of them are old or aging, and the level of loading, unloading and handling mechanization is low, which is difficult to meet the needs of economic development. Most of the enterprises are transformed from the Department of social materials allocated by the state during the planned economy period. They only pay attention to social benefits and ignore economic benefits. Their own funds for expanding reproduction are seriously insufficient and they are unable to update and transform technical equipment. The backward infrastructure of logistics enterprises leads to low transportation efficiency in the logistics industry, low modernization level of enterprise transportation and storage, and low degree of professional operation. At present, the purchase, transportation and voucher preparation of most logistics enterprises in China are mainly completed manually, with long circulation cycle, large inventory and high inventory cost

2. The high cost of logistics management is mainly reflected in two aspects:

first, the management level is backward. The quality of managers in most logistics enterprises in China is relatively low, and those with technical secondary school education or above only account for 7.5% of the total number of employees in the logistics industry, which is much lower than that in other industries; The concept of many managers has not been completely changed and can not adapt to the market demand in time, which is the main reason for the small scale of most logistics enterprises in China. Taking the warehousing industry as an example, most of the warehousing industry in China's logistics industry was founded in the 1950s and 1960s. It has rich land and warehouse resources, and has a long-term basis and customer base engaged in the logistics industry. However, the average handling times of warehouses are only 3 ~ 4, and the utilization rate is very low

secondly, information technology is backward. China's traditional logistics business model focuses on warehousing, transportation, loading and unloading, and maintenance. Do not attach importance to commodity distribution, circulation and processing, enterprise internal information transformation, introduction of logistics technology, collection, processing and release of logistics information. At present, the electronic level of most logistics enterprises is low, the information processing and processing means are backward, and the information processing level is only equivalent to 2.1% of the world average level. The high cost of logistics links has further aggravated the high cost pressure of this link and reduced the market competitiveness of enterprises

reducing logistics costs has become the most important problem

1 Speed up facility construction and improve logistics efficiency the state should take logistics as a supporting industry, raise construction funds through multiple channels, increase investment in the logistics industry and logistics infrastructure, and increase capital investment in the technological transformation of logistics enterprises. The financial department should give tax relief according to the current actual operating capacity of enterprises Reduce the debt burden left by enterprises; In terms of tax policy, transportation is also included in the scope of value-added tax collection, and input tax deduction is implemented for logistics enterprises to purchase transportation equipment and facilities, so as to reduce logistics costs of logistics enterprises; Unified management of logistics resources, rational layout of logistics network, bringing logistics enterprises into the network scope, and rational operation of logistics process. The logistics industry should also take advantage of the opportunity of China's entry into WTO to attract foreign investors to invest in the domestic logistics field, and step up the transformation of older logistics storage facilities. Focus on the development of modern warehousing, storage, transportation and other links to achieve electronic intelligent management and reduce enterprise logistics costs

make great efforts to realize the modernization of enterprise equipment. With the rapid development of the logistics industry, more and more new technologies and equipment are widely used in the logistics industry, such as global positioning system (GPS), Internet technology, bar code and reading technology, electronic data exchange, radio frequency identification technology, automatic control technology, robots and high-speed and flexible means of transport. The wide use of these technologies can promote the rapid response and standardized operation of logistics enterprises, effectively reduce the phenomenon of delayed inventory and delivery, and greatly improve the efficiency and accuracy of enterprise operation

2. Improve the management level

speed up the construction of talents in logistics enterprises. In order to promote the development of the logistics industry, the United States has set up Logistics Majors in secondary schools in Colleges and universities. Some colleges and universities also have graduate courses and degree education. At the same time, the American Logistics Association has organized a comprehensive on-the-job education in logistics, training a large number of professional talents for the logistics industry. China should improve the education system as soon as possible, establish the discipline system and talent training system of China's logistics specialty, establish a multi-level logistics talent education and training system, and improve the management level of existing logistics managers through training and other ways. At the same time, we will carry out vocational and technical education for employees of logistics enterprises, strengthen quality training, vigorously popularize and publicize logistics knowledge, cultivate professional talents with modern knowledge and comprehensive logistics management talents in line with China's national conditions, improve enterprise management level and reduce logistics costs

realize the informatization of logistics enterprises. Enterprise informatization means to realize the informatization of enterprise management and the networking of enterprise operation. The core of informatization of enterprise management is to constantly transform and optimize the internal management characteristics of the enterprise, and break the current management situation of independent departments and decentralized information. The key is to use the intranet of the enterprise to connect its internal departments, so that the information resources of the original departments become the common resources of the whole enterprise; At the same time, the strength and wear resistance are increased through appropriate heat treatment process such as quenching and tempering, carburizing and quenching Sometimes special steel is embedded in the jaw, or steel grit is sprayed on the jaw surface ②. Connect the intranet and Internet backbone of a small experimental fixture, strengthen the information communication with the branches in different locations of the enterprise, increase the sharing of information resources and achieve internal and external clean, rust free reuse, so as to establish and improve the internal and unified information management system of the enterprise, greatly improve the durability by 50%, reduce the repeated investment of equipment and manpower, and reduce the operation cost of the enterprise. The networking of enterprise operation, i.e. the completion of transaction, settlement and after-sales service through intranet or inter net, electronic data interchange (EDI) and computer technologies. At the same time, networking construction can connect logistics enterprises in the same industry and in different industries, forming a large-scale pattern of sharing manpower, equipment, technology and information. In addition, under the function of network, logistics enterprises can connect manufacturers and customers, achieve two-way services, and complete the logistics business in any international or domestic region in the shortest time, so as to greatly optimize the operation process of logistics enterprises

source: China Packaging News

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